CSA B51-0983

© Canadian Standards Association General requirements for boilers, pressure vessels, and pressure piping

In support of this application, the following information, calculations, and/or test data are attached: Pour étayer cette demande, les renseignements, calculs ou feuilles d’approbation suivants sont joints :

(Signature of applicant/Signature du demandeur)

(Date)

in the of

Declared before me at

J’atteste que cette déclaration a été assermentée devant moi à de this day of , .
le jour de , .

Name (please print) Nom (lettres moulées)

Signature

For regulatory authority use only/Réservé à l’organisme de réglementation

To the best of my knowledge and belief, this application meets the requirements of the Act and CSA Standard B51, Part 1, Clause 4.2, and is

accepted for registration in Category .

Pour autant que je le sache, cette demande satisfait aux exigences de la Loi et à la norme CSA B51, Partie 1, article 4.2, et est acceptée pour

l’enregistrement dans la catégorie .

Registration number
Numéro d’enregistrement

Date registered Expiry date
Date d’enregistrement Date d’expiration

Signature

(Month/Mois)

(Year/Année)

(A Commissioner of Oaths in and for

. My commission expires on .) (Commissaire à l’assermentation . Ma commission expire le .)

(For the Chief Inspector of ) (Pour l’inspecteur en chef représentant )

Figure D.6 (Concluded)

January 2009

59

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UL 2157 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Supplement No. 1 to CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

Open time — the maximum time for joining together adherents after adhesive has been applied in order to avoid surface alteration of the adhesive.

Plate — an FRP component whose thickness is significantly less than its other dimensions.

Pot life — the time one can work with primer, putty, and/or adhesive after mixing resin and a hardener before the primer, putty, and/or adhesive starts to harden in the mixture vessel.

Primary reinforcement — reinforcement provided mainly for strength.

Rope — an assembly of bundled continuous fibres.

Secondary reinforcement — reinforcement provided mainly for control of cracking.

Sheath — a protective encasement for a tendon or rope.

Sheet — a flexible component comprising fibres.

Shelf life — the length of time a material can be stored under specified environmental conditions and still continue to meet all applicable specifications for use.

Slab — a concrete slab that transfers load directly to the substructure.

Strand — a linear component that constitutes all or part of a tendon.

Strap — a linear component of steel or FRP that provides transverse restraint externally in a deck slab.

Stressed log bridge — a bridge deck made with logs that are trimmed to obtain two parallel faces and that are post-tensioned transversely.

Stressed wood deck — a stress-laminated wood deck or stressed log bridge.

Stress-laminated wood deck — a laminated wood deck that is post-tensioned perpendicular to the deck laminates.

Supporting beam — a stringer, floor beam, or girder.

Tendon — an FRP or high-strength steel element that imparts prestress to a structural component.

Thermoplastic matrix — a polymer capable of being repeatedly softened by an increase in temperature and hardened by a decrease in temperature.

Thermoset matrix — a polymer that changes into a substantially infusible and insoluble material when cured by heat, chemicals, or both.

Wet lay-up — a method of making an FRP-laminated product that involves applying a resin system as a liquid when the fabric is put in place.

16.3 Abbreviations and symbols

16.3.1 Abbreviations

The following abbreviations apply in this Section:

AFRP — aramid-fibre-reinforced polymer

CFRP — carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer

FLS — fatigue limit state

FRC — fibre-reinforced concrete

May 2010

(Replaces p. 697, November 2006)

697

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UL 260 standard

CAN/CSA-S6-06

© Canadian Standards Association

where

E = modulus of elasticity of wire

= 197 000 MPa (28 500 000 psi)

dw = diameter of largest individual wire, mm (in)

L = angle of helical wire with axis of strand, radians (degrees)

B = angle of helical strand with axis of rope, radians (degrees)

D = pitch diameter of sheave or drum, mm (in)

Table 13.13
Ultimate stress and ultimate strength of steel wire rope of 6 × 19 classification and 6 × 25 filler construction

(See Clauses 13.6.5.5.8, 13.6.5.5.9, 13.6.5.5.15, and 13.8.15.1.)

13.8.15.2 Sheaves and drums — Minimum diameters

The minimum pitch diameters of sheaves and drums shall be as follows:

(a) counterweight sheaves: not less than 72 times the rope diameter;

(b) operating rope sheaves and drums: not less than 45 times the rope diameter; and

(c) auxiliary counterweight sheaves: not less than 60 times the rope diameter.

13.8.15.3 Short arc contact

Where operating ropes have an arc of contact with a deflector sheave of 45° or less, a minimum sheave diameter of 20 times the rope diameter may be used.

13.8.15.4 Limiting rope sizes

The diameter of counterweight ropes shall normally be not less than 22 mm (0.875 in) and not greater than 64 mm (2.5 in). The use of diameters outside of this range shall require approval by the Engineer.

The diameter of operating ropes shall be not less than 16 mm (0.625 in).

Grade 1770

Grade 110/120

Rope diameter, d, mm Approx. area of section
(= 0.4d2), mm2

Ultimate stress, MPa Ultimate strength of entire rope, kN Rope diameter, d, in

Approx. area of section
(= 0.4d2),
in2 Ultimate stress,
psi Ultimate strength of entire rope, lb

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64

57.6 78.4 102.4 129.6 160.0 193.6 230.4 270.4 313.6 409.6 518.4 640.0 774.4 921.6 1081.6 1254.4 1440.0 1638.4

1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460

84.0 114.0 149.0 189.0 234.0 283.0 336.0 395.0 458.0 600.0 755.0 935.0 1130.0 1350.0 1580.0 1830.0 2100.0 2390.0

1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1
1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2
2 1/8 2 1/4 2 3/8 2 1/2

0.100

0.156

0.225

0.306

0.400

0.506

0.625

0.756

0.900

1.056

1.225

1.406

1.600

1.806

2.025

2.256

2.500

212 000 212 000 204 000 209 000 209 000 209 000 210 000 214 000 213 000 214 000 212 000 216 000 211 000 208 000 207 000 211 000 218 000

21 000 33 000 46 000 64 000 83 000 106 000 131 000 162 000 192 000 226 000 260 000 304 000 338 000 376 000 420 000 476 000 520 000

606

November 2006

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UL 130 standard

CAN/CSA-S6-06

7.8.15.3 Bedding for precast concrete structures

7.8.15.3.1 Uniform support and control of grade

The bedding shall be constructed as required for the specific installation by Clause 7.8.3 in order to distribute the load-bearing reaction uniformly on the pipe barrel or structure base and to maintain the required conduit grade.

7.8.15.3.2 Compaction

The bedding layers shall be compacted as specified for the installation design in Clause 7.8.3. For pipes designed as Type C1, C2, or C3 in accordance with Clause 7.8.3.5, or as Type B1 in accordance with Clause 7.8.3.6, the bedding layer shall be placed as uniformly as possible but shall be loosely placed and uncompacted under the middle third of the conduit wall. For all structures, the outer bedding or any bedding that may be under the lower side areas shall be compacted to at least the same requirements as apply to the outer bedding or lower side areas, whichever are more stringent.

7.8.15.3.3 Maximum aggregate size

The maximum aggregate size for bedding shall not exceed 25 mm unless the bedding has a thickness of 150 mm or greater, in which case the maximum aggregate size shall not exceed 38 mm.

7.8.15.3.4 Bell holes

Bell holes shall be excavated in the bedding or foundation when pipe with expanded bells is installed so that the pipe is supported by the barrel and not by the bells.

7.8.15.4 Placement and joining of precast structures

7.8.15.4.1 Control of line and grade

Structures shall be installed to the line and grade shown on the Plans. Joining shall be in accordance with the manufacturer�s recommendations. Before the precast section is joined, it shall be brought to correct alignment and the top positioned.

7.8.15.4.2 Adjustments in alignment

If the precast section being installed is misaligned, the section shall be completely disconnected, the alignment corrected, and the section rejoined. Alignments shall not be adjusted by exerting force on the barrel of the section or by lifting and dropping the section.

7.8.15.5 Structural backfill

7.8.15.5.1 Type and compaction

Soils placed below and adjacent to a precast structure shall be of the type and compaction level specified in Clause 7.8.3.5 or 7.8.3.6, as applicable, for the particular location of the soils in the backfill zones. The soils shall be placed and compacted uniformly so as to distribute the load-bearing reaction uniformly to the bedding over the full length of the structure. Within 0.3 m of the conduit wall, the aggregate size shall be less than or equal to 38 mm.

7.8.15.5.2 Concrete pipe in standard installations

For precast concrete pipes designed as standard installations in accordance with Clause 7.8.3.5, the haunch and lower sidefill zones shall be constructed using the soil type and minimum compaction level corresponding to the particular standard installation type.

November 2006

� Canadian Standards Association

298

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UL 1425 standard

CAN/CSA-S6-06

© Canadian Standards Association

GFRP bar (typ.) with diameter db

Clear distance between grooves

Depth o groove

f

Edge distance

Width of groove

Figure 16.13

Cross-section of a timber beam with GFRP NSMR (See Clause 16.12.2.2.)

16.12.3 Strengthening for shear

16.12.3.1 Shear strengthening with GFRP sheets

When the following minimum conditions for shear strengthening with GFRP sheets are satisfied, the shear strength for beam and stringer grades used for the evaluation shall be assumed to be KvFRP fvu, in which

KvFRP shall be taken as 2.0 and fvu shall be obtained from Table 9.13: (a) The minimum fibre volume fraction of the GFRP sheets along their axes is 30% and the sheets have a minimum thickness of 0.1 mm.

(b) Horizontal splits in beams, if present, are closed by a mechanical device before the application of the GFRP sheets.

(c) The GFRP sheets have at least the same width as the width of the cross-section of the beam (see Figure 16.14(a)).

(d) As shown in Figure 16.14(a), the GFRP sheet is inclined to the beam axis at an angle of 45 ± 10° from the horizontal.

(e) The top of the inclined GFRP sheet is as close to the centreline of the beam support as possible.

(f) The adhesive used for bonding the GFRP sheets to the timber beam is compatible with the preservative treatment used on the timber and with the expected volumetric changes of the timber.

(g) The top of the inclined GFRP sheet extends up to nearly the top of the beam.

(h) The lower end of the inclined GFRP sheet extends to the bottom of the beam if no dap is present (see Figure 16.14(a)). If there is a dap, the lower end is wrapped around the bottom and extends to at least half the width of the beam. In the latter case, the corner of the beam is rounded to a minimum radius of 12.5 mm to provide full contact of the sheet with the beam (see Figure 16.14(b)).

November 2006

726

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UL 2738 standard

(Replaces p. 125, July 2009)

[f044]

March 2011

Table 5
Alternative methods for specifying concrete

(See Clauses 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.3, 4.4.1.1, 5.2.4.3.2, and 8.1.5 and Annex J.)

©

Canadian Standards Association

Concrete mate

rials and methods of concrete construction

Alternative The owner shall specify The contractor shall

The supplier shall

(1) Performance:

When the owner requires the concrete supplier to assume responsibility for performance of the concrete as delivered and the contractor to assume responsibility for the concrete in place.

(a) required structural criteria, including strength at age;

(b) required durability criteria, including class of exposure;

(c) additional criteria for durability, volume stability, architectural requirements, sustainability, and any additional owner performance, pre-qualification, or verification criteria;

(d) quality management requirements (see Annex J);

(e) whether the concrete supplier shall meet certification requirements of concrete industry certification programs; and

(f) any other properties that might be required to meet the owner’s performance criteria.

(a) work with the supplier to establish the concrete mix properties to meet performance criteria for plastic and hardened concrete, considering the contractor’s criteria for construction and placement and the owner’s performance criteria;

(b) submit documentation demonstrating the owner’s pre-qualification performance requirements have been met; and

(c) prepare and implement a quality control plan to ensure that the owner’s performance criteria will be met and submit documentation demonstrating the owner’s performance requirements have been met.

(a) certify that the plant, equipment, and all materials to be used in the concrete comply with the requirements of this Standard;

(b) certify that the mix design satisfies the requirements of this Standard;

(c) certify that production and delivery of concrete will meet the requirements of this Standard;

(d) certify that the concrete complies with the performance criteria specified;

(e) prepare and implement a quality control plan to ensure that the owner’s and contractor’s performance requirements will be met, if required;

(f) provide documentation verifying that the concrete supplier meets industry certification requirements, if specified; and

(g) submit documentation to the satisfaction of the owner, demonstrating that the proposed mix design will achieve the required strength, durability, and performance requirements.

(2) Prescription:

When the owner assumes responsibility for the concrete.

(a) mix proportions, including the quantities of any or all materials

(i.e., admixtures, aggregates, cementing materials, and water) by mass per m3 of concrete;

(b) the range of air content;

(c) the slump range;

(d) use of a concrete quality plan, if required; and

(e) other requirements.

(a) provide verification that the plant, equipment, and all materials to be used in the concrete comply with the requirements of this Standard;

(b) demonstrate that the concrete complies with the prescriptive criteria as supplied by the owner; and

(c) identify to the contractor any anticipated problems or deficiencies with the mix parameters related to construction.

Notes: (1) The owner may accept recognized concrete facility certification programs from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, or the Atlantic Concrete Association.

(2) Some of these specification performance requirements necessitate that performance be measured (pre-qualified) by test submissions that demonstrate conformance. If the requested performance characteristics cannot be demonstrated from a pre-existing concrete mix design, timing for developing the mix, testing, and reporting need to be accommodated in the job schedule and planning process.

(3) See Annex J for background information and guidance on the use of this Table.

(a) plan the construction methods
based on the owner’s mix proportions and parameters;

(b) obtain approval from the owner for any deviation from the specified mix design or parameters; and

(c) identify to the owner any anticipated problems or deficiencies with the mix parameters related to construction.

125

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UL 497B standard

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UL 1681 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

Table 8.5 (Continued)

Environmental
exposure Component Reinforcement/ steel ducts Concrete covers and tolerances

Cast-in-place concrete, mm Precast concrete, mm

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

Reinforcing steel Pretensioning strands Post-tensioning ducts

40 ± 10 —

60* ± 10

60 ± 20 —

80* ± 15

60 ± 20 —

80* ± 15

— —

40 ± 10 —

60* ± 10

50 ± 10 —

70* ± 10

60 ± 10 —

80* ± 10

60 ± 20 —

80* ± 15

60 ± 20 —

80* ± 15

— — —

40 ± 10

55 ± 5

60* ± 10

40 ± 10

55 ± 5

60* ± 10

50 ± 10 70 ± 5 70 ± 10

40 ± 10 38 ± 3

40 ± 10

55 ± 5

60* ± 10

40 ± 10

55 ± 5

60* ± 10

50 ± 10

65 ± 5

70* ± 10

40 ± 10

55 ± 5

60* ± 10

50 ± 10 70 ± 5 70* ± 10

30 +10 or –5

45 ± 5

50* ± 10

(Continued)

No de-icing chemicals; no spray or surface runoff containing de-icing chemicals; no marine spray

(1) Top of bottom slab for rectangular voided deck

(2) Top surface of buried structure with less than 600 mm fill† or top surface of bottom slab of buried structure

(3) Top surface of structural component, except (1) and (2) above/

(4) Soffit of precast deck form

(5) Soffit of slab less than 300 mm thick or soffit of top slab of voided deck

(6) Soffit of slab 300 mm thick or thicker or soffit of structural component, except (4) and (5) above

(7) Vertical surface of arch, solid or voided deck, pier cap, T-beam, or interior diaphragm

(8) Inside vertical surface of buried structure or inside surface of circular buried structure

(9) Vertical surface of structural component, except (7) and (8) above

(10) Precast T-, I-, or box girder

November 2006

345

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UL 60950 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

8.13.2 Dimensional changes

Dimensional changes due to loads, temperature, shrinkage, and creep shall be determined using the data specified in Clauses 8.4.1.3, 8.4.1.5, and 8.4.1.6.

8.13.3 Deflections and rotations

8.13.3.1 General

Deflections and rotations shall be calculated in accordance with one of the methods specified in Clauses 8.13.3.2 to 8.13.3.4.

8.13.3.2 Refined method

Determination of deflection and rotation of a member by a refined method shall make allowance for the the following, as applicable:

(a) shrinkage and creep properties of the concrete;

(b) relaxation of prestressing steel;

(c) expected load history; and

(d) effects of cracking and tension stiffening.

8.13.3.3 Simplified method

Deflections and rotations may be calculated using the effective moment of inertia, Ie, as follows: For prestressed concrete, the value of Mcr/Ma to be used in calculating deflections and rotations due to live load shall be taken as For continuous spans, the effective moment of inertia may be taken as the average for the critical positive and negative moment sections.

For prismatic members, the effective moment of inertia may be taken as the value at midspan for simple spans and at the support for cantilevers.

8.13.3.4 Total deflection and rotation

In lieu of a more refined analysis, the sum of the total instantaneous and long-term deflection and rotation for flexural non-prestressed components may be obtained by multiplying, respectively, the instantaneous deflection and rotation caused by the sustained load by the factor where [03c1] ‘ shall be taken as the value at midspan for simple and continuous spans and at the support for cantilevers. The factor S for duration of sustained loads shall be taken as follows:

(a) three months: 1;

(b) six months: 1.2;

(c) 12 months: 1.4; and

(d) five years or more: 2.

If necessary, linear interpolation may be used for durations of less than five years.

In lieu of a more refined analysis, the long-term deflection and rotation of flexural prestressed components may be estimated by multiplying, respectively, the instantaneous deflection and rotation due

3

I I I I M

M I

e cr g cr cr a

= + -

( )[23a1][23a3][23a2]

[23a4]

[23a6][23a5] [2264]

g

M

M

= – -

( )

cr a

1

f f f

tl cr I

S

1 1 50

[23a1] + + ’ [23a3][23a2]

r

[23a4]

[23a6][23a5]

November 2006

349

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UL 6 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

13.8.14 Line-bearing pressure

13.8.14.1 Rollers or rockers

The maximum line-bearing pressure in newtons per millimetre (pounds per inch) on rollers or rockers shall be as follows:

(a) For diameters less than 635 mm (25 in):

(b) For diameters of 635 to 3200 mm (25 to 125 in):

where

p = the least of the values of the yield strength of the material in the roller, rocker, roller bed, or track, MPa (psi)

d = diameter of roller or rocker, mm (in)

Where the rollers could be subjected to live load with the bridge closed, e.g., on a rim-bearing swing bridge, or for balance wheels subjected to wind loads, the maximum bearing pressures may be increased by 50%.

13.8.14.2 Segmental girders

The maximum line-bearing pressure in newtons per millimetre (pounds per inch) on the treads of segmental girders rolling on flat surfaces for diameters of 3 m (10 ft) or more shall be as follows:

( ) -

p d p d

90 2 76

138

-

[239b] ( )

[239d][239c]

13 000 400

20 000 .

[239e]

[23a0][239f]

( ) -

p d p d

90 2 22

138

-

[239b] ( )

[239d] [239c]

13 000 2000

20 000 .

[239e]

[23a0] [239f]

( ) . .

p d p

- +

90 2 10 0 55

138 13 000 12 000 80

20 000

( ) -

( ) +

( )

d

[239b]

[239d][239c]

[239e]

[23a0][239f]

where

p = the lesser of the values of the yield strength of the steel in the segmental girder tread or track,
MPa (psi)

d = diameter of segmental girder, mm (in)

Those portions of the segmental girder and the track or tread that are in contact when the bridge is closed shall be designed for the sum of the dead load and live load (including dynamic load effects). Under this loading, the maximum line-bearing pressure may be increased by 50%.

13.8.15 Design of wire ropes

13.8.15.1 Bending formula

For counterweight ropes, the maximum stress from the combined effect of direct loads and bending shall not exceed 0.22 of the ultimate stress of the rope specified in Table 13.13. The stress from the direct load shall not exceed 0.125 of the ultimate strength of the rope specified in Table 13.13. For operating ropes, the limits shall be 0.30 and 0.16, respectively.

Where ropes are bent over sheaves or drums, the extreme fibre stress, f, in megapascals (pounds per square inch) shall be calculated as follows:

2 2

. cos cos

f Ed L B

D

w

= 0 8

November 2006

605

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